Renewable Energy Explained

In contrast to the fossil fuels, renewable energies, as the name suggests, exist perpetually and in abundant quantity in the environment. They areready to be harnessed, inexhaustible, and more importantly, they are environment-friendly. However, the term “renewable energy” has no official or commonly accepted definition.

As an example, the Renewable Energy Working Party of the International Energy Agency defined renewable energyto mean energy that is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly.

Typical renewable energy sources are wind, heat & light from the Sun, oceanwave, purposely-growth energy crops, potential energy of running water, geothermal energy, etc. Energy generated from waste is termed as one  kind of renewables in some countries. Others regard it as a waste disposal process rather than a renewable source, since there are pollutants generated as by-products, although modern technology has significantly reduced the pollutant emission to a very low level.

Modern solar thermal technologies capture sunlight and utilise its energy to produce hot water, steam and electricity. Apart from using purposely designed equipment to capture the solar energy, buildings in cold countries can be designed to make the best use of the heat energy from the sun by incorporating appropriate design features such as large south-facing windows and special building materials that absorb and slowly release thesun’s heat for warming the building interior.

Solar photovoltaic technologies, on the other hand, employs photovoltaiccells made from semi-conducting materials such as silicon to produce directcurrent electricity when they are exposed to the sun. In the absence of moving components that are subject to wear and tear, photovoltaic cells canoperate for a very long period without much maintenance commitment. Thesimplest and most common type of photovoltaic cells provides power towatches and calculators, while the more sophisticated “state-of-the-art” photovoltaic systems can generate electricity to supplement local consumption in a building or a designated system, and the excess power caneven be fed to the city electrical grid.

Wind is the movement of air molecules, resulting from variations in airpressure created by difference in solar heating over the earth surface. Wind turbine is a device which captures the kinetic energy of wind to turn agenerator for producing electrical power. Nowadays wind farms employing groups of wind turbines located either on land or on near-shore waters are becoming more and more common to harness the wind energy for mass production of electricity.

Other forms of renewable energy technology like hydroelectric power, wavepower, geothermal energy and energy form vegetation are also gaining increasing popularity in power generation. However the exploitation ofthese forms of renewables is very often dictated by geographical conditions, and thus the extent of their application usually has a wide variation amongst countries.

Municipal solid waste commonly refers to residential and commercial refuse, and takes up the largest percentage of waste generation in industrialized countries. There are three basic processes that are currently used toconvert municipal solid waste into useful heat or electricity, viz, thermal process, biological processes, and landfill gas utilisation. All three methods produce energy from organic materials present in the waste that would otherwise be converted naturally into methane or carbon dioxide; both are undesirable by-products as they are the main constituents of greenhouse gases.

Book Review: HVAC Engineer’s Handbook, Eleventh Edition

Fred Porges has worked in both the manufacturing and process industries, and became a partner in a building services consultancy in 1962. He has held senior positions with design contractors, and his experience covers every building service and type of building from schools to housing, factories to laboratories.

* Provides comprehensive data in compact form for ease of use
* Keep up to date with a full comparative summary of all air conditioning techniques
* Provides you with must-have information for dealing with HVAC

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HVAC Engineer’s Handbook, Eleventh Edition

hvac engineer’s handbook – f porges 2001 XINCA.com HVAC Controls & ELV Systems

In the almost sixty years since the publication of the first edition of HVAC Engineer’s Handbook, it has become widely known as a highly useful and definitive reference for HVAC engineers and technicians alike, and those working on domestic hot and cold water services, gas supply and steam services.

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The 11th edition continues in the tradition of previous editions, being easily transportable and therefore an integral part of the HVAC engineer or technician’s daily tools.

Newly updated data on natural ventilation, ventilation rates, free cooling and night-time cooling, make the 11th edition of the HVAC Engineer’s Handbook a vital source of information.

Key Elements in Intelligent Buildings

The concept of an ‘Intelligent Building’ encompasses various automation systems for Building Control, Office, Communications, Security and Fire. An IB project generally covers three key elements.

  • Communications Network and Office Automation.
  • Building Management System.
  • Integrated Services Infrastructure.

Communications Network & Office Automation System

The System includes office administration, Property Management, and Business Intelligence Systems that reduce heavy workloads and human error to enhance efficiency, quality and the working environment as a whole. Voice, Data, Video and Multimedia Information Services, such as Video Conferencing, Email and Electronic Data Exchange, are provided via the building’s high-speed backbone network to the benefit of each
office.

Building Management System (BMS)

Building Management System provides automatic monitoring, interaction and management for electricity, ventilation, water supply, security and fire control to the building. BMS manages the following systems: Building
Automation System (BAS) Security Automation System (SAS) & Fire Automation System (FAS):

Building Automation System (BAS)

The Building Automation System centralises the remote monitoring and control of all building facilities – including electricity, lighting, plumbing, ventilation and air-conditioning, water supply and drainage and environmental control systems – at a single control center. Seamless monitoring of all these systems ensures a reliable working or living environment for tenants as well as optimised human resources allocation for the Property Manager.

Security Automation System (SAS)

Security Automation System is critical for providing a secure environment and protecting the safety of tenants. Elements include: Anti-theft Security and Alarm System , Electronic Control System, Access Control System, Closed-Circuit TV Surveillance System.

Fire Automation System (FAS)

The Fire Automation System is supported by independent network and cabling systems to ensure operation continues nonstop, even during an emergency. When linked to the building’s centralised control room, a second level of monitoring is provided; and in case of fire, various systems can interact directly to optimise all necessary building facilities.

ELV Integration

For many years, voice and data systems were cabled separately. Now it is standard practice to use a common platform for both of these systems. Like the Voice and Data Systems of the past, the traditional construction process separately installs each of the BMS disciplines under various divisions of a specification.

This means that multiple cabling systems and pathways are installed during the various stages of construction, which establishes one of the primary reasons for ELV Systems Integration i.e. (Integrated Cabling and pathways instead of individual systems). Also, the BMS vendors have now started to use Data Networking and LAN architectures which allow them to communicate over a Standard Ethernet LAN using the same TCP / IP protocol used by computers.

HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers: Fundamentals, Application, and Operation

HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers provides fundamental principles and practical techniques for the design, application, purchase, operation, and maintenance of water chillers and cooling towers. Written by a leading expert in the field, the book analyzes topics such as piping, water treatment, noise control, electrical service, and energy efficiency for optimal system and equipment performance and offers extensive checklists, troubleshooting strategies, and reference data, as well as recommended specifications for the procurement of new or replacement equipment.

HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers Fundamentals, Application, and Operation

by Marcel Dekker

This reference also discusses proper installation and placement of chillers and cooling towers, start-up, and capacity.

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