A Much Better Light Bulb

Optics researchers at the University of Rochester led by Chunlei Guo can turn regular incandescent light bulbs into power-sippers. This news after the Congress outlaws incandescent bulbs some years out.  Nothing is so dubious as mandating markets and closing off innovation and creativity.  But the rest of the world can rejoice, they can see better cheaper after dark than the dopey Americans who seem to have taken the central command economy to new heights of foolishness.

Using an ultra-powerful laser the new process could make a light as bright as a 100-watt bulb consume less electricity than a 60-watt bulb while remaining far cheaper and radiating a more pleasant light than a fluorescent bulb can.  Cheaper and better, great huh.  The global warming campaign is beginning to bite in unforeseen ways.

The laser process creates a unique array of nano- and micro- scale structures on the surface of a regular tungsten filament, the tiny wire inside a light bulb.  These structures make the tungsten become far more effective at radiating light.  Guo’s and his assistant, Anatoliy Vorobyev’s findings will be published in an upcoming issue of the journal Physical Review Letters.

Guo, associate professor of optics says, “We’ve been experimenting with the way ultra-fast lasers change metals, and we wondered what would happen if we trained the laser on a filament.  We fired the laser beam right through the glass of the bulb and altered a small area on the filament. When we lit the bulb, we could actually see this one patch was clearly brighter than the rest of the filament, but there was no change in the bulb’s energy usage.”  Now that’s a bright flash of intuition, too.  He could have saved an industry.

The fun numbers are in the key to creating the super-filament. Using an ultra-brief, ultra-intense beam of light called a femtosecond laser pulse, the laser burst lasts only a few quadrillionths of a second. To understand and quantify that kind of speed, consider that a femtosecond is to a second what a second is to about 32 million years.  So, during its brief burst, Guo’s laser unleashes as much power “as the entire grid of North America” onto a spot the size of a needlepoint. That intense blast forces the surface of the metal to form nanostructures and microstructures that dramatically alter how efficiently light can radiate from the filament.  It sounds a little like a hammer on the wire smoothing up the surface.

Back in 2006, Guo and Vorobyev, used a similar laser process to turn any metal pitch black. The surface structures created on the metal were incredibly effective at capturing incoming radiation, such as light.

Guo says, “There is a very interesting ‘take more, give more’ law in nature governing the amount of light going in and coming out of a material.”

Since the black metal was extremely good at absorbing light, he and Vorobyev set out to study the reverse process—that the blackened filament would radiate light more effectively as well.  Guo says, “We knew it should work in theory, but we were still surprised when we turned up the power on this bulb and saw just how much brighter the processed spot was.”

Now for this – in addition to increasing the brightness of a bulb, Guo’s process can be used to tune the color of the light as well. In 2008, his team used a similar process to change the color of nearly any metal to blue, golden, and gray, in addition to the black they’d already accomplished. Guo and Vorobyev used that knowledge of how to control the size and shape of the nanostructures—and thus what colors of light those structures absorb and radiate—to change the amount of each wavelength of light the tungsten filament radiates. Though Guo cannot yet make a simple bulb shine pure blue, for instance, he can change the overall radiated spectrum so that the tungsten, which normally radiates a yellowish light, could radiate a more purely white light.

Now for the photo folks, Guo’s team has even been able to make a filament radiate partially polarized light, which until now has been impossible to do without special filters that reduce the bulb’s efficiency. By creating nanostructures in tight, parallel rows, some of the light that emits from the filament becomes polarized.

Next, the team is working to discover what other aspects of a common light bulb they might be able to control.

Despite the incredible intensity involved, the femtosecond laser can be powered by a simple wall outlet.  The laser must have a very good capacitor set.  This suggests that when the process is refined, implementing it commercially to augment regular light bulbs should be relatively simple.

Getting the same amount of radiated luminosity for 60% of the power is a good deal.  Its not as good as the compact florescent, but close, and could well have saved the business in the U.S.  It still might if some clever lawyering and marketing is employed.  For those of us who are discomforted by the frequency of florescent that would be very good news.

Incandescent isn’t bad at all or inefficient when used correctly.  They are suitable whenever the furnace is running or you’re adding warmth to a space.  No energy is wasted.  I grant that incandescent bulbs aren’t a smart choice because they add heat – then we use energy to move it away, but for much of the populated world, incandescent is a fine idea and useful choice in lighting.

Adding the Rochester team’s innovation will make for a much better bulb that costs less to use and gives off better light.  It may even save consumers money and save on energy.  It’s just a shame that political pressure and weak character in politicians has loaded a new cost on consumers that will diminish these folks’ good work.  It won’t be as low cost as it could be and that’s exclusively a result of politicians doing what government has never done successfully.

Source: New Energy and Fuel

Know Who’s Calling With Voice Announcements!

CL9900CWThis revolutionary product from ClassCo announces calls over its built-in speaker, a headset, or a speakerphone. No more interruptions and inconvenience imposed by traditional, display only Caller ID equipment. The CL9900CW announces a caller’s 10-digit telephone number or recorded name, “number unknown” and “number blocked” for unknown and blocked calls. This technological breakthrough gives caller ID subscribers what they have been looking for: the ability to screen calls without the interruptions and inconvenience imposed by traditional, display only caller ID equipment.

Author: Home Controls

Visualizing the Cellulose Change to Sugar

Researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), a US Department of Energy Bioenergy Research Center led by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a visualization technique, based on the natural auto-fluorescence of plant cell walls.  The technique enables researchers for the first time to visualize dynamically the solubilization (dissolving) during an ionic liquid pretreatment of a biomass sample.  The study used pristine switchgrass, Panicum virgatum.

The use of ionic liquids – salts that are liquids rather than crystals at room temperature – to dissolve lignocellulose and later help hydrolyze the resulting liquid into sugars, shows promise as a way of pre-treating biomass for a more efficient conversion into fuels.  But, the best ionic liquids in terms of effectiveness are also prohibitively expensive for use at commercial scale.  The Lawrence Berkley Story author even makes clear, “scientists know little beyond the fact that ionic liquids do work.”  So the new technology of seeing the breakdown of the cellulose has real meaning because understanding how ionic liquids are able to dissolve lignocellulosic biomass should pave the way for finding new and better varieties for use in biofuels.

Auto Fluorescence View of EmimAc Solubilization. .

Auto Fluorescence View of EmimAc Solubilization. .

The new technique is based on the natural auto-fluorescence of plant cell walls, so enabling researchers for the first time to dynamically track the solubilization during an ionic liquid pretreatment of a biomass sample, and to accurately and quickly assess the liquid’s performance without the need of labor-intensive and time-consuming chemical and immunological labeling.  Imagine the time and personnel that would be involved to get a clear idea of what’s going on.

The technique is successful with the switchgrass using the ionic liquid known as EmimAc (1-n-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate), which is currently the most effective solvent known to date in terms of pre-treating biomass.  The researchers observed a rapid swelling of the secondary plant cell walls within ten minutes of exposure at the relatively mild temperature of 120º Celsius, not so much over the boiling point of water.  Blake Simmons, Vice President of JBEI’s Deconstruction Division and the principal investigator for this research says,  “We attributed the swelling to disruption of inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between cellulose fibrils and lignin. The swelling was followed by complete dissolution of biomass over three hours. This is the first study to show the process by which biomass solubilization occurs in an ionic liquid pre-treatment using these techniques.”  It’s visualized now, which should enlighten the human minds looking for better solutions.

Once the EmimAc had dissolved the switchgrass into its three components – cellulose and hemicellulose sugars, plus the lignin, (woody fiber that gives strength and structure to plant cell walls) the step of adding of an anti-solvent, such as water, resulted in the sugars being precipitated out while most of the lignin remained in solution, a requirement for recovering the sugars separately. This confirmed that the ionic liquid pre-treatment effectively disrupted the resistance to dissolving of the switchgrass and helped liberate the fermentable sugars.

Simmons says, “In comparison to untreated biomass, ionic liquid pretreated biomass produces cellulose that is efficiently hydrolyzed with commercial cellulase cocktail and provides sugar yields over a relatively short time interval. We are now in the process of evaluating other ionic liquids to discover the optimal combination of cost and performance.”

The study results were reported in the journal Biotechnology and Bioengeering in a paper entitled: “Visualization of Biomass Solubilization and Cellulose Regeneration During Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass” Co-authoring the paper with Simmons were his JBEI colleague Seema Singh, and Kenneth Vogel, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service, located in Lincoln, NE. Simmons and Singh also hold appointments with Sandia National Laboratories.

The “feature story” at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory gets into the details of the technique with a couple of paragraphs. But what matters here is as Simmons says, “The ultimate goal is to find an ionic liquid that can efficiently pre-treat biomass, then scale its use up into a cost-effective process for biorefineries.” Ideally, he and his colleagues would like to identify a single versatile ionic liquid that is capable of producing enriched polysaccharide and lignin output streams irrespective of feedstock and fuel types. That goal points to much more basic research ahead.

Meanwhile Simmons says, “Right now ionic liquids are a bench-top technique, and there are research and engineering obstacles that must be solved before this technology is ready for prime time. But the drivers are clear, and ionic liquids offer processing advantages that no other current commercial pre-treatment technology can provide.”

Exactly, which is just why the biological path to biomass to fuel is so tedious.  Cellulose and lignins are billion-year-old evolved designs that are meant to keep plants together and do it well.  The notion they are going to be easy to dissolve or deconstruct in a nice, quick and low effort process is a idea worth pursuing, but its going to take a lot of innovation, ingenuity and persistence to get there.


Original post: New Energy and Fuel

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Here is the original post: Home Controls